As the number of companies importing products from manufacturers in emerging markets continues to increase with advances in technology and cost pressures, so too do their risk exposures. This has been evidenced in recent years by numerous large-scale product recalls in both the US and Australia for potentially unsafe imported products. These products have ranged from children’s toys (eg Bindeez beads laced with toxic chemicals and face paint containing unsafe lead levels) to tyres, clothing and even pet foods (responsible for the deaths of many much-loved cats and dogs in the US and elsewhere).
According to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), approximately two thirds of recent US product recalls have been for imported products – a large majority of them manufactured in China. Australian companies importing products from any foreign country need to be aware of their ultimate responsibility for product safety under the Trade Practices Act 1974. Safety-related recalls – voluntary or otherwise – are the responsibility of the supplier under the Trade Practices Act.
What’s more, if the foreign manufacturer or supplier doesn’t have a place of business in Australia, any company selling their products is vulnerable to potential liability litigation and should take steps to protect themselves. In this situation, your importer client is likely to be treated as the manufacturer and held liable for all aspects of product design and safety in litigation.
While consumers can take action against both the supplier and manufacturer, your business is at increased risk in the absence of insurance or indemnity protection from the foreign manufacturer.
Affected businesses include manufacturers that procure some portion of their products from a foreign source, as well as wholesalers and retailers that import all/most of the products they sell, including private-labelled goods. Whether companies import all or only a small portion of their products, they need to be aware of – and take responsibility for – risks at every step of the process.
Failure to effectively manage these risks could have serious consequences ranging from liability litigation to expensive recalls and serious damage to the company’s reputation and brand.
Prevention is critical. Your business needs solid strategies to assess and manage risk, and you should follow your plans with ongoing vigilance.
Importers need to be aware of their risks by looking at the entire lifecycle of their products – starting with design if this is outsourced offshore. There also could be points in the manufacturing process where the risks extend beyond the foreign manufacturer, for example when production and/or raw material procurement is outsourced to other vendors.
Unless the importer sets forth requirements for the foreign manufacturer or supplier to notify them of and make transparent these types of situations, they are likely to be unaware of additional risks stemming from subcontracting and other material changes.
In the event of a recall, there are several legal hurdles your business will need to overcome in its attempts to join a foreign manufacturer to pay for the resulting losses. Rarely can foreign manufacturers provide any Certificates of Insurance showing coverage in the importer’s jurisdiction. Even where they can, rarely do they have adequate limits.
In turn, your business is likely to shoulder the ultimate liability and responsibility for ensuring the safety of the products you import, thereby becoming the prime target for litigation resulting from product design/development and manufacturing risks.
In light of this, importers must have a rigorous product-liability risk management plan in place with redundant, multiple layers of controls that address a product’s entire lifecycle. Your business might also require the services of legal counsel or outsourcing specialists familiar with the legislative, cultural, regulatory and other issues in the originating country or countries. These factors are significant in determining the amount of oversight and the level of vigilance needed to control product quality.
An importer’s product liability risk management plan should include:
See checklist below for other criteria that need to be addressed.
If a foreign manufacturer is responsible for the complete product, including design, extra care must be taken to review product specifications for compliance with industry and governmental standards and regulations. This is particularly crucial for regulated products, such as children’s toys, jewellery, textiles, food and pharmaceuticals. It goes without saying that the cost of liability, coupled with the far-reaching expenses of a recall, can be staggering.
Although product recall insurance may be available, it can be expensive and have restricted limits. In addition, most insurance does not help when it comes to damage to a company’s reputation and brand. Your business is much better advised to focus on the preventative measures you can take to help ensure the safety and quality of your imported products. In the end, what really matters is your company’s brand name on the product and the promise of quality that goes with it.
© Zurich Financial Services Australia September 2008. This story was authored by Ashutosh Riswadkar, Liability Line of Business Director for Zurich Risk Engineering in North America, with the help of Product Liability Line of Business Director Peter Dion and Senior Risk Engineer David Jewell.
Risk reduction strategies for importers
10 point checklist for importers